A bunion is an enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe—the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint -that forms when the bone or tissue at the big toe joint moves out of place. This forces the toe to bend toward the others, causing an often painful bump on the inside of the foot. Since this joint carries a lot of the body’s weight while walking, bunions can cause extreme pain if left untreated. The big toe joint itself may become stiff and sore, making even the wearing of shoes difficult or impossible. A bunion–from the Latin “bunio,” meaning enlargement–can also occur on the outside of the foot along the little toe, where it is called a “bunionette” or “tailor’s bunion.”
Development of a painful bump on the outside edge of the foot or at the base of the big toe. Redness, swelling, or pain at or near these joints. Corns or other irritations caused by the overlap of the first and second toes. Restricted or painful motion of the big toe.
How Do You Get a Bunion?
Bunions form when the normal balance of forces that is exerted on the joints and tendons of the foot becomes disrupted. This can lead to instability in the joint and cause the deformity. They are brought about by years of abnormal motion and pressure over the big toe joint. They are, therefore, a symptom of faulty foot development and are usually caused by the way we walk, and our inherited foot type, our shoes, or other sources.
Although bunions tend to run in families, it is the foot type that is passed down—not the bunion. Parents who suffer from poor foot mechanics can pass their problematic foot type on to their children, who in turn are prone to developing bunions. The abnormal functioning caused by this faulty foot development can lead to pressure being exerted on and within the foot, often resulting in bone and joint deformities such as bunions and hammertoes.
Other causes of bunions are foot injuries, neuromuscular disorders, or congenital deformities. People who suffer from flat feet or low arches are also prone to developing these problems, as are arthritic patients and those with inflammatory joint disease. Occupations that place undue stress on the feet are also a factor; ballet dancers, for instance, often develop the condition.
Wearing shoes that are too tight or cause the toes to be squeezed together is also a common factor, one that explains the high prevalence of the disorder among women.
What Can You Do For Relief?
- Wear shoes with a wide and deep toe box.
- If your bunion becomes inflamed and painful, apply ice packs several times a day to reduce swelling and see your doctor immediately.
- Avoid high-heeled shoes over two inches tall.
- Apply an over the counter non-medicated bunion shield to reduce pressure on the area.
- See your podiatric physician if pain persists or worsens.